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Optoelectronics Of Solar Cells

Optoelectronics of Solar Cells PDF
Author: Greg P. Smestad
Publisher: SPIE Press
ISBN: 9780819444400
Size: 58.46 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 99
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Optoelectronics Of Solar Cells

by Greg P. Smestad, Optoelectronics Of Solar Cells Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Optoelectronics Of Solar Cells books, A discussion of how solar cell devices function, and of the parameters that control their operation. The text is designed as an overview for those in the fields of optics and optical engineering, as well as those interested in energy policy, economics and photo-to-electric energy conversion.




Optical Modeling And Simulation Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices

Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices PDF
Author: Janez Krc
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439818509
Size: 55.93 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 2135

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Optical Modeling And Simulation Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices

by Janez Krc, Optical Modeling And Simulation Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Optical Modeling And Simulation Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices books, In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models, demonstrates the applicability of optical modeling, and presents concrete directions and solutions for improving the devices. Along with giving practical hints, the book highlights significant research, development, and production in the field. It covers numerous approaches of one-, two-, and three-dimensional optical modeling, including one-dimensional semi-coherent modeling and two-dimensional modeling based on the finite element method (FEM). Many practical examples illustrate the use of simulations with the developed models, helping readers better understand and develop their own models as well as appreciate innovative concepts in light management in thin-film PV devices.




Effects Of Energetic Disorder On The Optoelectronic Properties Of Organic Solar Cells

Effects of Energetic Disorder on the Optoelectronic Properties of Organic Solar Cells PDF
Author: Nikolaos Felekidis
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176852717
Size: 28.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 60
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Effects Of Energetic Disorder On The Optoelectronic Properties Of Organic Solar Cells

by Nikolaos Felekidis, Effects Of Energetic Disorder On The Optoelectronic Properties Of Organic Solar Cells Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Effects Of Energetic Disorder On The Optoelectronic Properties Of Organic Solar Cells books, Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is a promising low-cost and environmental-friendly technology currently achieving 12-14% power conversion efficiency. Despite the extensive focus of the research community over the last years, critical mechanisms defining the performance of OPVs are still topics of debate. While energetic disorder is known to be characteristic of organic semiconductors in general, its potential role in OPV has received surprisingly little attention. In this thesis we investigate some aspects of the relation between energetic disorder and several optoelectronic properties of OPV. Charge carrier mobility is a key parameter in characterizing the performance of organic semiconductors. Analyzing the temperature dependence of the mobility is also an oftenused method to obtain (estimates for) the energetic disorder in the HOMO and LUMO levels of an organic semiconductor material. Different formalisms to extract and analyze mobilities from space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) experiments are reviewed. Surprisingly, the Murgatroyd-Gill analytical model in combination with the Gaussian disorder model in the Boltzmann limit yields similar mobilities and energetic disorders as a more elaborate drift-diffusion model with parametrized mobility functionals. Common analysis and measurement errors are discussed. All the models are incorporated in an automated analysis freeware tool. The open circuit voltage (Voc) has attracted considerable interest as the large difference between Voc and the bandgap is the main loss mechanism in bulk heterojunction OPVs. Surprisingly, in ternary devices composed of two donors and one acceptor, the Voc is not pinned to the shallowest HOMO but demonstrates a continuous tunability between the binary extremities. We show that this phenomenon can be explained with an equilibrium model where Voc is defined as the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels of the photo-created holes and electrons in a common density of states accounting for the stoichiometry, i.e. the ratio of the donor materials and the broadening by Gaussian disorder. Evaluating the PCE, it is found that ternary devices do not offer advantages over binary unless the fill factor (FF) is increased at intermediate compositions, as a result of improved transport/recombination upon material blending. Stressing the importance of material intermixing to improve the performance, we found that the presence of an acceptor may drastically alter the mobility and energetic disorder of the donor and vice versa. The effect of different acceptors was studied in a ternary onedonor- two-acceptors system, where the unpredictable variability with composition of the energetic disorder in the HOMO and the LUMO explained the almost linear tunability of Voc. Designing binary OPVs based on the design rule that the energetic disorder can be reduced upon material blending, as we observed, can yield a relative PCE improvement of at least 20%. CT states currently play a key role in evaluating the performance of OPVs and CTelectroluminescence (CT-EL) is assumed to stem from the recombination of thermalized electron-hole pairs. The varying width of the CT-EL peak for different material combinations is intuitively expected to reflect the energetic disorder of the effective HOMO and LUMO. We employ kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) CT-EL simulations, using independently measured disorder parameters as input, to calculate the ground-to-ground state (0-0) transition spectrum. Including the vibronic broadening according to the Franck Condon principle, we reproduce the width and current dependence of the measured CT-EL peak for a large number of donor-acceptor combinations. The fitted dominant phonon modes compare well with the values measured using the spectral line narrowing technique. Importantly, the calculations show that CT-EL originates from a narrow, non-thermalized subset of all available CT states, which can be understood by considering the kinetic microscopic process with which electron-hole pairs meet and recombine. Despite electron-hole pairs being strongly bound in organic materials, the charge separation process following photo-excitation is found to be extremely efficient and independent of the excitation energy. However, at low photon energies where the charges are excited deep in the tail of the DOS, it is intuitively expected for the extraction yield to be quenched. Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) experiments for different material systems show both inefficient and efficient charge dissociation for excitation close to the CT energy. This finding is explained by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations accounting for a varying degree of e-h delocalization, where strongly bound localized CT pairs (< 2nm distance) are doomed to recombine at low excitation energies while extended delocalization over 3-5nm yields an increased and energy-independent IQE. Using a single material parameter set, the experimental CT electroluminescence and absorption spectra are reproduced by the same kMC model by accounting for the vibronic progression of the calculated 0-0 transition. In contrast to CT-EL, CT-absorption probes the complete CT manifold. Charge transport in organic solar cells is currently modelled as either an equilibrium or a non-equilibrium process. The former is described by drift-diffusion (DD) equations, which can be calculated quickly but assume local thermal equilibrium of the charge carriers with the lattice. The latter is described by kMC models, that are time-consuming but treat the charge carriers individually and can probe all relevant time and energy scales. A hybrid model that makes use of the multiple trap and release (MTR) concept in combination with the DD equations is shown to describe both steady-state space charge limited conductivity experiments and non-equilibrium time-resolved transport experiments using a single parameter set. For the investigated simulations, the DD-MTR model is in good agreement with kMC and ~10 times faster. Steady-state mobilities from DD equations have been argued to be exclusively relevant for operating OPVs while charge carrier thermalization and non-equilibrium time-dependent mobilities (although acknowledged) can be disregarded. This conclusion, based on transient photocurrent experiments with ?s time resolution, is not complete. We show that non-equilibrium kMC simulations can describe the extraction of charge carriers from subps to 100 ?s timescales with a single parameter set. The majority of the fast charge carriers, mostly non-thermalized electrons, are extracted at time scales below the resolution of the experiment. In other words, the experiment resolves only the slower fraction of the charges, predominantly holes.




Handbook Of Optoelectronic Device Modeling And Simulation

Handbook of Optoelectronic Device Modeling and Simulation PDF
Author: Joachim Piprek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498749577
Size: 14.52 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 868
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Handbook Of Optoelectronic Device Modeling And Simulation

by Joachim Piprek, Handbook Of Optoelectronic Device Modeling And Simulation Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Handbook Of Optoelectronic Device Modeling And Simulation books, Optoelectronic devices are now ubiquitous in our daily lives, from light emitting diodes (LEDs) in many household appliances to solar cells for energy. This handbook shows how we can probe the underlying and highly complex physical processes using modern mathematical models and numerical simulation for optoelectronic device design, analysis, and performance optimization. It reflects the wide availability of powerful computers and advanced commercial software, which have opened the door for non-specialists to perform sophisticated modeling and simulation tasks. The chapters comprise the know-how of more than a hundred experts from all over the world. The handbook is an ideal starting point for beginners but also gives experienced researchers the opportunity to renew and broaden their knowledge in this expanding field.




World Scientific Handbook Of Organic Optoelectronic Devices Volumes 1 2

World Scientific Handbook Of Organic Optoelectronic Devices  Volumes 1   2  PDF
Author:
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813239859
Size: 14.20 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 908
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World Scientific Handbook Of Organic Optoelectronic Devices Volumes 1 2

by , World Scientific Handbook Of Organic Optoelectronic Devices Volumes 1 2 Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download World Scientific Handbook Of Organic Optoelectronic Devices Volumes 1 2 books, Organic (opto)electronic materials have received considerable attention due to their applications in perovskite and flexible electronics, OPVs and OLEDs and many others. Reflecting the rapid growth in research and development of organic (opto)electronic materials over the last few decades, this book provides a comprehensive coverage of the state of the art in an accessible format. It presents the most widely recognized fundamentals, principles, and mechanisms along with representative examples, key experimental data, and over 200 illustrative figures.




Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics PDF
Author: Konrad Mertens
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119401046
Size: 47.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 368
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Photovoltaics

by Konrad Mertens, Photovoltaics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Photovoltaics books, A comprehensive tutorial on photovoltaic technology now fully updated to include solar storage and the latest methods for on-site plant measurements Starting with the basic principles of solar energy, this fully updated, practical text explains the fundamentals of semiconductor physics and the structure and functioning of the solar cell. It describes the latest measurement techniques for solar modules, and the planning and operation of grid-connected and off-grid PV systems. It also looks at other thin film cells, hybrid wafer cells, and concentrator systems. Additionally, this Second Edition covers solar modules and solar generators; system technology of grid connected plants; the storage of solar energy; photovoltaic measurement technology; the planning and operation of grid-connected systems; economic efficiency of PV systems; and the future development of PV. Presents the latest advances in PV R&D and industry deployment Updated illustrations and tabular data reflect current state-of-the-art and PV technology efficiencies Offers expanded tutorial sections to aid teaching and self-study Includes a brand-new chapter on Solar Energy Storage Features two enlarged chapters—one on up-to-date photovoltaic metrology and the other on the future developments in photovoltaics Comes along with the accompanying website www.textbook-pv.org which offers free downloadable figures of the book, solutions of exercises, additional free PV software etc. Developed to prepare engineering students for the PV industry, this practical text is an essential PV primer.




Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics

Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics PDF
Author: Zhenqiang Ma
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527343954
Size: 69.33 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 280
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Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics

by Zhenqiang Ma, Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics books, Comprehensively covering inorganic flexible optoelectronics and their applications This highly application-oriented book provides an overview of the vibrant research field of inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to applications ? covering bulk materials as well as nanowires, thin films, nanomembranes for application in light emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, and solar cells. Edited and written by world-leading experts in the field, Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications begins by covering flexible inorganic light emitting diodes enabled by new materials and designs, and provides examples of their use in neuroscience research. It then looks at flexible light-emitting diodes based on inorganic semiconductor nanostructures ? from thin films to nanowires. Next, the book examines flexible photodetectors with nanomembranes and nanowires; 2-D material based photodetectors on flexible substrates; and IV group materials based solar cells and their flexible photovoltaic technologies. Following that, it presents readers with a section on thin-film III-V single junction and multijunction solar cells and demonstrates their integration onto heterogeneous substrates. Finally, the book finishes with in-depth coverage of novel materials based flexible solar cells. -A must-have book that provides an unprecedented overview of the state of the art in flexible optoelectronics -Supplies in-depth information for new and already active researchers in the field of optoelectronics -Lays down the undiluted knowledge on inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to devices -Focuses on materials and devices for high-performance applications such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and photodetectors Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications appeals to materials scientists, electronics engineers, electrical engineers, inorganic chemists, and solid state physicists.




Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics And Photovoltaics

Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics and Photovoltaics PDF
Author: Gerasimos Konstantatos
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521198267
Size: 10.97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 327
View: 6722

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Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics And Photovoltaics

by Gerasimos Konstantatos, Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics And Photovoltaics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics And Photovoltaics books, Captures the most up-to-date research in the field, written in an accessible style by the world's leading experts.




Semiconductors For Solar Cells

Semiconductors for Solar Cells PDF
Author: Hans Joachim Möller
Publisher: Artech House Optoelectronics L
ISBN:
Size: 38.53 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 343
View: 4652

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Semiconductors For Solar Cells

by Hans Joachim Möller, Semiconductors For Solar Cells Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Semiconductors For Solar Cells books, Semiconductors for Solar Cells bridges the gap between materials science and device design for solar cells. It is systematically divided into three parts that address different aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion.